The purpose of the society is to help provide for the technical and professional development of its members in geology, geophysics, and related sciences, especially in the exploration for, and development of, petroleum and mineral resources within the Arabian Peninsula.

The society activities include regular monthly meetings, field trips to local and out-of-kingdom locations, technical seminars, special projects and publications. Membership includes subscription to the quarterly geoscience journal "Geo Arabia". The society is also a co-sponsor of the regional "GEO" conferences.

Membership of the Dhahran Geoscience Society is open to all Eastern Province geoscientists. The Dhahran Geoscience Society is an affiliated society of AAPG, EAGE & SEG.